The Sentinel 5P was launched at 5:27 a.m ET from a site in northern Russia.
“We condemn Russia’s actions and demand that this launch be halted,” Nunavut Premier Peter Taptuna told the Canadian Press. “Our people rely on the marine ecosystem to support our families, communities, and livelihoods.”
The Inuit Circumpolar Conference, an organization that represents Inuit around the world, also protested the satellite launch.
Watch the launch here: Sentinel 5P
Ottawa had told the European Space Agency it was unhappy about plans to launch a satellite that would drop a rocket stage likely to contain highly toxic fuel in some of the most ecologically productive waters of the Canadian Arctic.
“Canada is in the process of engaging the European Space Agency to express concerns regarding potential environmental effects of launches on the sensitive Arctic ecosystem,” Brianne Maxwell, a spokeswoman for Global Affairs Canada, said Thursday.
The comment came after the government of Nunavut added its voice to protests over the launch.
“The prime minister has been in contact with the premier’s office on this issue,” Maxwell said.
Territorial officials raised concerns with the Prime Minister’s Office this week after Premier Peter Taptuna complained about the launch.
“We are calling on Canada and Denmark to take swift action at the international level to dissuade these activities and move forward with protecting this area locally and internationally,” Taptuna said Oct. 6, the day after Russia notified Canada of its intentions.
The European Space Agency, of which Canada is an affiliate member, launched the Sentinel 5P satellite to monitor trace gases in the atmosphere.
A second launch of a similar satellite is planned for 2018.
The Sentinel 5P, along with the planned launch in 2018, use Soviet-era rockets fuelled by hydrazine.
Hydrazine is so toxic that almost every space program in the world, including Russia’s, has moved away from it.
The second stage of the rocket, containing up to a tonne of unburned hydrazine, is expected to splash down in water between Greenland and Baffin Island.
That area falls within Canada’s exclusive economic zone and is within the jurisdiction of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act.
The North Water Polynya is an 85,000-square-kilometre ocean that is free of ice year-round. It shelters most of the world’s narwhal, as well as about 14,000 beluga whales and 1,500 walruses.
Bowhead whales, polar bears, and four types of seals swim in its waters. Tens of millions of seabirds teem in its skies.
Inuit communities in Canada and Greenland routinely hunt animals that depend on the North Water Polynya.
Global Affairs Canada has previously said that Canada “continues to express concerns to Russia” over potential environmental impacts.
The Europeans maintain all the toxic fuel burns up on re-entry.
Academic research points out there has been no study of what happens to fuel released over marine ecosystems. As well, previous studies in Russian launch zones suggest some fuel does reach the water’s surface.
Nunavut acknowledges the risk is low but argues it shouldn’t be there at all.
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-with files from the Canadian Press